# List of LaTeX mathematical symbols

This tutorial provides a list of commonly used LaTeX mathematical symbols.

## Arrows Symbols

The **arrow symbols** are commonly used to represent the direction, mapping, and relationship in various mathematical expressions.

LaTeX Command | Symbol | Description |
---|---|---|

\uparrow | ↑ | Up Arrow |

\downarrow | ↓ | Down arrow |

\leftarrow | ← | Left arrow |

\rightarrow | → | Right arrow |

\leftrightarrow | ↔ | Left and right arrow |

\Leftarrow | ⇐ | Double left arrow |

\Rightarrow | ⇒ | Double right arrow |

\Downarrow | ⇓ | Double down arrow |

\Uparrow | ⇑ | Double up arrow |

\Updownarrow | ⇕ | Double up and down arrow |

\nearrow | ⇗ | Northeast arrow |

\searrow | ⇘ | Southeast arrow |

\swarrow | ⇙ | Southwest arrow |

\nwarrow | ⇖ | Northwest arrow |

\updownarrow | ↕ | Up and down arrow |

\leftharpoonup | ↼ | Left harpoon up arrow |

\rightharpoonup | ⇀ | Right harpoon up arrow |

\leftharpoondown | ↽ | Left harpoon down arrow |

\rightharpoondown | ⇁ | Right harpoon down arrow |

\mapsto | ↦ | Mapsto |

\hookleftarrow | ↩ | Hooked left arrow |

\hookrightarrow | ↪ | Hooked right arrow |

\rightleftharpoons | ⇌ | Left and right harpoons |

\Leftrightarrow | ⇔ | Left and right double arrow |

\longleftarrow | ⟵ | Long left arrow |

\longrightarrow | ⟶ | Long right arrow |

\Longleftarrow | ⟸ | Long left double arrow |

\Longrightarrow | ⟹ | Long right double arrow |

## Binary Operators Symbols

In LaTeX, **binary operators** are symbols used to perform binary operations on mathematical expression and performing operations on operands.

Symbol | LaTeX Command | Description |
---|---|---|

± | \pm | Plus or Minus |

∓ | \mp | Minus or plus |

× | \times | Multiply |

÷ | \div | Divided |

∗ | \ast | Asterisk |

⋆ | \star | Star |

† | \dagger | Dagger |

‡ | \ddagger | Double dagger |

∩ | \cap | Set intersection |

∪ | \cup | Set union |

⊎ | \uplus | Multiset union |

⊓ | \sqcap | Squared cap |

⊔ | \sqcup | Squared cup |

⋁ | \vee | N-ary logical or |

⋀ | \wedge | N-ary logical and |

⋅ | \cdot | Centered dot |

⋄ | \diamond | Diamond |

△ | \bigtriangleup | Big triangle up |

▽ | \bigtriangledown | Big triangle down |

◃ | \triangleleft | Triangle left |

▹ | \triangleright | Triangle right |

◯ | \bigcirc | Big circle |

• | \bullet | Bullet |

≀ | \wr | Wreath product |

⊕ | \oplus | Circled plus |

⊖ | \ominus | Circled minus |

⊗ | \otimes | Circled times |

⊘ | \oslash | Circled division |

⊙ | \odot | Circled dot |

○ | \circ | Small circle |

∖ | \setminus | Set minus |

⨿ | \amalg | Amalgamation |

## Brackets Symbols

In LaTex, **bracket symbols** are used to group mathematical expressions and to provide additional structure to equations.

Symbol | LaTeX Command | Description |
---|---|---|

[ ] | \lbrack \rbrack | Square Brackets |

{ } | \lbrace \rbrace | Curly Brackets |

( ) | \left( \right) | Round Brackets |

⟨ ⟩ | \langle \rangle | Angle Brackets |

⌊ ⌋ | \lfloor \rfloor | Floor Brackets |

⌈ ⌉ | \lceil \rceil | Ceiling Brackets |

| | \vert \vert | Single Vertical Bar |

| | | \lvert \rvert | Double Vertical Bars |

## Calculus Symbols

In LaTeX, **calculus symbols** are used to represent mathematical expressions and operations related to calculus.

These symbols plays crucial roles in expressing integrations, limits, differentiation, infinity and other mathematical concepts.

Symbol | LaTeX Command | Description |
---|---|---|

∫ | \int | Integral |

∬ | \iint | Double Integral |

∭ | \iiint | Triple Integral |

∮ | \oint | Contour Integral |

∯ | \oiint | Surface Integral |

∰ | \oiiint | Volume Integral |

∇ | \nabla | Nabla (Gradient Operator) |

∂ | \partial | Partial Derivative |

∞ | \infty | Infinity |

lim | \lim | Limit |

d | \mathrm{d} | Infinitesimal Differential |

Δx | \Delta x | Change in x |

Δy | \Delta y | Change in y |

δx | \delta x | Infinitesimal Change in x |

δy | \delta y | Infinitesimal Change in y |

Σ | \Sigma | Summation |

## Delimiter Symbols

In LaTeX, **delimiter symbols** are used to enclose and group parts of mathematical exxpressions and provide clarity to the notation.

Symbol | LaTeX Command | Description |
---|---|---|

( ) | \left( \right) | Parentheses |

[ ] | \left[ \right] | Square Brackets |

{ } | \left{ \right} | Curly Braces |

| | | \lvert \rvert | Double Vertical Bars |

⟨ ⟩ | \langle \rangle | Angle Brackets |

⌊ ⌋ | \lfloor \rfloor | Floor Brackets |

⌈ ⌉ | \lceil \rceil | Ceiling Brackets |

/ | / | Slash (Solidus) |

\ | \backslash | Backslash |

| | \vert | Vertical Bar |

## Geometry Symbols

In LaTeX, **geometry symbols** are used to represent various geometry concepts such as shapes,measurements.

Symbol | LaTeX Command | Term |
---|---|---|

- | \overline{\rm AB} | Line Segment |

↞ | \overrightarrow{\rm AB} | Ray (Half-line) |

∠ | \angle | Angle |

∡ | \measuredangle | Measured Angle |

△ | \triangle | Triangle |

▢ | \square | Square |

≅ | \cong | Congruent (Same Shape and Size) |

≇ | \ncong | Not Congruent |

∼ | \sim | Similar (Same Shape) |

≁ | \nsim | Not Similar |

‖ | | | Is Parallel with |

∦ | \nparallel | Is Not Parallel with |

⊥ | \perp | Is Perpendicular to |

⊥̸ | \not\perp | Is Not Perpendicular to |

∩ | \cap | Intersection |

∪ | \cup | Union |

⊂ | \subset | Subset |

⊃ | \supset | Superset |

∅ | \emptyset | Empty Set |

° | \degree | Degree |

## Greek Symbols

In LaTeX, **greek symbols** are used to represent the letter of Greek alphabet.These symbols are used in mathematical notation, scientific equations, and various technical fields.

Lowercase | Uppercase | LaTeX Command | Description |
---|---|---|---|

α | Α | \alpha | Alpha |

β | Β | \beta | Beta |

γ | Γ | \gamma | Gamma |

δ | Δ | \delta | Delta |

ε | Ε | \epsilon | Epsilon |

ζ | Ζ | \zeta | Zeta |

η | Η | \eta | Eta |

θ | Θ | \theta | Theta |

ι | Ι | \iota | Iota |

κ | Κ | \kappa | Kappa |

λ | Λ | \lambda | Lambda |

μ | Μ | \mu | Mu |

ν | Ν | \nu | Nu |

ξ | Ξ | \xi | Xi |

ο | Ο | \omicron | Omicron |

π | Π | \pi | Pi |

ρ | Ρ | \rho | Rho |

σ | Σ | \sigma | Sigma |

τ | Τ | \tau | Tau |

υ | Υ | \upsilon | Upsilon |

φ | Φ | \phi | Phi |

χ | Χ | \chi | Chi |

ψ | Ψ | \psi | Psi |

ω | Ω | \omega | Omega |

## Logic Symbols

In LaTeX, **logic symbols** are used to represent the various logical operations and mathematical concepts. These symbols plays a very important role in expressing the logical statements, relationships.

Symbol | LaTeX Command | Description |
---|---|---|

∃ | \exists | There exists |

∃! | \exists! | There exists one and only one |

∄ | \nexists | There does not exists |

∀ | \forall | For all |

¬ | \neg | Logical not |

∨ | \lor | Logical or |

∧ | \land | Logical and |

⟹ | \Longrightarrow or \implies | Implies |

⇒ | \Rightarrow | Right implication |

⟸ | \Longleftarrow | is implied by (only if) |

⇐ | \Leftarrow | Left Implication |

⟺ | \iff | is equivalent to (if and only if, iff) |

⇔ | \Leftrightarrow | Equivalent |

⊤ | \top | Top |

⊥ | \bot | Bottom |

## Negated Binary Symbols

In LaTeX, the **negated binary relations symbols** are used to express the negation or negated version of common binary operations.

Symbol | LaTeX Command | Description |
---|---|---|

≁ | \ncong | Not congruent to |

≉ | \napprox | Not approximately equal to |

≄ | \nasymp | Not asymptotically equal to |

≇ | \nsim | Not similar to |

≢ | \nequiv | Not equivalent to |

≭ | \nlessgtr | Not less/greater than |

≯ | \ngtrless | Not greater/less than |

≱ | \ngeqslant | Not greater than or equal to |

≰ | \nleqslant | Not less than or equal to |

⊀ | \nprec | Not precedes |

⊁ | \nsucc | Not succeeds |

⊄ | \nsubset | Not a subset of |

⊅ | \nsupset | Not a superset of |

⊈ | \nsubseteq | Not a subset of or equal to |

⊉ | \nsupseteq | Not a superset of or equal to |

⊬ | \nvdash | Does not imply |

⊭ | \nvDash | Not models |

⊮ | \nVdash | Not forces |

⊯ | \nVDash | Not triple bar |

⊮ | \ntriangleleft | Does not contain as left member |

⊯ | \ntriangleright | Does not contain as right member |

⋠ | \nprec | Not precedes |

⋡ | \nsucc | Not succeeds |

⋢ | \npreceq | Not precedes or equals |

⋣ | \nsucceq | Not succeeds or equals |

⋦ | \nsubseteq | Not subset or equal |

⋧ | \nsupseteq | Not superset or equal |

⋨ | \nsubseteq | Not subset or equal |

⋩ | \nsupseteq | Not superset or equal |

## Other Symbols

In LaTex, it offers variety of **other symbols** to represent various mathematical, logical and typographic elements in LaTeX documents.

Symbol | LaTeX Command | Description |
---|---|---|

ℵ | \aleph | Aleph |

ℶ | \beth | Beth |

ℸ | \daleth | Daleth |

ℷ | \gimel | Gimel |

∁ | \complement | Complement |

ℓ | \ell | Script Small L |

ð | \eth | Eth |

ℏ | \hbar | Planck Constant (h-bar) |

ℏ | \hslash | Planck Constant (h-bar) |

℧ | \mho | Conductance |

∂ | \partial | Partial Derivative |

℘ | \wp | Weierstrass P |

Ⓢ | \circledS | Circled S |

� | \Bbbk | Blackboard Bold k |

Ⅎ | \Finv | Inverted F |

⅁ | \Game | Game |

ℑ | \Im | Imaginary Part |

ℜ | \Re | Real Part |

∞ | \infty | Infinity |

∀ | \forall | For All |

k | \Bbbk | Blackboard Bold k |

℘ | \wp | Weierstrass P |

∇ | \nabla | Nabla |

∃ | \exists | Exists |

F | \bigstar | Big Star |

∠ | \angle | Angle |

∂ | \partial | Partial Derivative |

@ | \nexists | Negated Exists |

\diagdown | Diagonal Down | |

] | \measuredangle | Measured Angle |

ð | \eth | Eth |

∅ | \emptyset | Empty Set |

\diagup | Diagonal Up | |

^ | \sphericalangle | Spherical Angle |

♣ | \clubsuit | Club Suit |

∅ | \varnothing | Empty Set |

♦ | \Diamond | Diamond |

{ | \complement | Complement |

♦ | \diamondsuit | Diamond Suit |

ı | \imath | Math Italic i |

` | \Finv | Inverted F |

O | \triangledown | Triangle Down |

♥ | \heartsuit | Heart Suit |

| \jmath | Math Script j |

a | \Game | Game |

4 | \triangle | Triangle |

♠ | \spadesuit | Spade Suit |

` | \ell | Script Small L |

~ | \hbar | Planck Constant (h-bar) |

M | \vartriangle | Upright Triangle |

· | \cdots | Centered Ellipsis |

RRRR | \iiiint | Quadruple Integral |

} | \hslash | Planck Constant (h-bar) |

\blacklozenge | Black Lozenge | |

. | … | Ellipsis |

\vdots | \vdots | Vertical Dots |

RRR | \iiint | Triple Integral |

♦ | \lozenge | Lozenge |

\blacksquare | Black Square | |

. | … | Ellipsis |

\ldots | \ldots | Lowercase Dots |

RR | \iint | Double Integral |

f | \mho | Conductance |

N | \blacktriangle | Black Triangle |

. | … | Ellipsis |

\ddots | \ddots | Diagonal Dots |

] | \sharp | Sharp |

′ | \prime | Prime |

H | \blacktrinagledown | Black Triangle Down |

= | \Im | Imaginary Part |

[ | \flat | Flat |

\ | \square | Square |

\ | \natural | Natural |

√ | \surd | Square Root |

s | \circledS | Circled S |

< | \leq | Less than or equal to |

## Relation Symbols

In LaTeX, **relation symbols** are used to express the various relationship between mathematical expressions, elements, and sets.

## Set Symbols

**Set symbols** in LaTeX are used to represent various operations and concepts related to sets in mathematics.

Symbol | LaTeX Command | Term |
---|---|---|

∅ | \varnothing or \emptyset | Empty Set |

⊆ | \subseteq | Subset |

⊂ | \subset | Proper Subset |

⊇ | \supseteq | Superset |

⊃ | \supset | Proper Superset |

∪ | \cup | Union |

∩ | \cap | Intersection |

∈ | \in | Set Membership |

∉ | \notin | Not a Member |

⊆ | \subseteq | Subset of or Equal To |

⊇ | \supseteq | Superset of or Equal To |

∪ | \cup | Set Union |

∩ | \cap | Set Intersection |

\ | \setminus or \backslash | Set Difference |

∁ | \complement | Set Complement |

∈ | \in | Set Membership |

∉ | \notin | Not a Member |

∩ | \cap | Set Intersection |

∪ | \cup | Set Union |

⊂ | \subset | Subset of |

⊊ | \subsetneq | Proper Subset of |

⊃ | \supset | Superset of |

⊋ | \supsetneq | Proper Superset of |

∈ | \in | Set Membership |

∉ | \notin | Not a Member |

∊ | \ni | Element of |

∋ | \notni | Not an Element of |

∪ | \cup | Set Union |

∩ | \cap | Set Intersection |

\ | \setminus or \backslash | Set Difference |

⊆ | \subseteq | Subset or Equal To |

⊇ | \supseteq | Superset or Equal To |

∪ | \cup | Set Union |

∩ | \cap | Set Intersection |

⊂ | \subset | Subset of |

⊊ | \subsetneq | Proper Subset of |

⊃ | \supset | Superset of |

⊋ | \supsetneq | Proper Superset of |

∈ | \in | Set Membership |

∉ | \notin | Not a Member |

∊ | \ni | Element of |

∋ | \notni | Not an Element of |

∪ | \cup | Set Union |

∩ | \cap | Set Intersection |

\ | \setminus or \backslash | Set Difference |

∁ | \complement | Set Complement |

∈ | \in | Set Membership |

∉ | \notin | Not a Member |

∊ | \ni | Element of |

∋ | \notni | Not an Element of |

## Special Symbols

In LaTeX, **special symbols** represents the currency symbols, musical notation, and other miscellaneous characters.

Symbol | LaTeX Command | Description |
---|---|---|

° | \degree | Degree Symbol |

℃ | \degreeCelsius | Degree Celsius Symbol |

℉ | \degreeFahrenheit | Degree Fahrenheit Symbol |

€ | \euro | Euro Symbol |

£ | \pound | Pound Sterling Symbol |

© | \copyright | Copyright Symbol |

® | \textregistered | Registered Trademark Symbol |

™ | \texttrademark | Trademark Symbol |

† | \dagger | Dagger Symbol |

‡ | \ddagger | Double Dagger Symbol |

♂ ♀ | \male \female | Male and Female Symbols |

✓ | \checkmark | Checkmark Symbol |

✗ | \cross | Cross Symbol |

## Trigonometric Symbols

In LaTeX, **trigonometric symbols** are used to represent various trigonometric functions and angles.

Symbol | LaTeX Command | Description |
---|---|---|

π | \pi | Pi |

θ | \theta | Theta |

ϕ | \phi | Phi |

ψ | \psi | Psi |

Ω | \Omega | Omega |

sin | \sin | Sine |

cos | \cos | Cosine |

tan | \tan | Tangent |

cot | \cot | Cotangent |

sec | \sec | Secant |

csc | \csc | Cosecant |

arcsin | \arcsin | Arcsine |

arccos | \arccos | Arccosine |

arctan | \arctan | Arctangent |

arccot | \arccot | Arccotangent |

arcsec | \arcsec | Arcsecant |

arccsc | \arccsc | Arccosecant |

sinh | \sinh | Hyperbolic Sine |

arsinh | \operatorname{arsinh} | Inverse Hyperbolic Sine |

csch | \operatorname{csch} | Hyperbolic Cosecant |

arcsch | \operatorname{arcsch} | Inverse Hyperbolic Cosecant |

cosh | \cosh | Hyperbolic Cosine |

arcosh | \operatorname{arcosh} | Inverse Hyperbolic Cosine |

sech | \operatorname{sech} | Hyperbolic Secant |

arsech | \operatorname{arsech} | Inverse Hyperbolic Secant |

tanh | \tanh | Hyperbolic Tangent |

artanh | \operatorname{artanh} | Inverse Hyperbolic Tangent |

coth | \coth | Hyperbolic Cotangent |

arcoth | \operatorname{arcoth} | Inverse Hyperbolic Cotangent |

It covers the list of majorly used symbols such as Arrows, Binary Operators, Brackets, Calculus,Delimiter,Geometry,Greek Symbols, Logic, Negated Binary symbols,Relations symbols, set, special symbols and Trigonometric symbols.

Most of the symbols are built-in available in LaTeX and doesn’t required additional package. However, advanced symbols and functionalities can be achieved through additional packages such as amssymb,tidk-zcd,extrarrows, extpfiel etc…