List of LaTeX mathematical symbols

This tutorial provides a list of commonly used LaTeX mathematical symbols.

It covers the list of majorly used symbols such as Arrows, Binary Operators, Brackets, Calculus,Delimiter,Geometry,Greek Symbols, Logic, Negated Binary symbols,Relations symbols, set, special symbols and Trigonometric symbols.

Most of the symbols are built-in available in LaTeX and doesn’t required additional package. However, advanced symbols and functionalities can be achieved through additional packages such as amssymb,tidk-zcd,extrarrows, extpfiel etc…

Arrows Symbols

The arrow symbols are commonly used to represent the direction, mapping, and relationship in various mathematical expressions.

Description LaTeX Command Symbol
Up Arrow \uparrow
Down arrow \downarrow
Left arrow \leftarrow
Right arrow \rightarrow
Left and right arrow \leftrightarrow
Double left arrow \Leftarrow
Double right arrow \Rightarrow
Double down arrow \Downarrow
Double up arrow \Uparrow
Double up and down arrow \Updownarrow
Northeast arrow \nearrow
Southeast arrow \searrow
Southwest arrow \swarrow
Northwest arrow \nwarrow
Up and down arrow \updownarrow
Left harpoon up arrow \leftharpoonup
Right harpoon up arrow \rightharpoonup
Left harpoon down arrow \leftharpoondown
Right harpoon down arrow \rightharpoondown
Mapsto \mapsto
Hooked left arrow \hookleftarrow
Hooked right arrow \hookrightarrow
Left and right harpoons \rightleftharpoons
Left and right double arrow \Leftrightarrow
Long left arrow \longleftarrow
Long right arrow \longrightarrow
Long left double arrow \Longleftarrow
Long right double arrow \Longrightarrow

Binary Operators Symbols

In LaTeX, binary operators are symbols used to perform binary operations on mathematical expression and performing operations on operands.

Symbol LaTeX Command Description
± \pm Plus or minus
\mp Minus or plus
× \times Multiply
÷ \div Divided
\ast Asterisk
\star Star
\dagger Dagger
\ddagger Double dagger
\cap Set intersection
\cup Set union
\uplus Multiset union
\sqcap Squared cap
\sqcup Squared cup
\vee N-ary logical or
\wedge N-ary logical and
\cdot Centered dot
\diamond Diamond
\bigtriangleup Big triangle up
\bigtriangledown Big triangle down
\triangleleft Triangle left
\triangleright Triangle right
\bigcirc Big circle
\bullet Bullet
\wr Wreath product
\oplus Circled plus
\ominus Circled minus
\otimes Circled times
\oslash Circled division
\odot Circled dot
\circ Small circle
\setminus Set minus
⨿ \amalg Amalgamation

Brackets Symbols

In LaTex, bracket symbols are used to group mathematical expressions and to provide additional structure to equations.

Symbol LaTeX Command Description
[ ] \lbrack \rbrack Square Brackets
{ } \lbrace \rbrace Curly Braces
( ) \left( \right) Round Brackets
⟨ ⟩ \langle \rangle Angle Brackets
⌊ ⌋ \lfloor \rfloor Floor Brackets
⌈ ⌉ \lceil \rceil Ceiling Brackets
| | \lvert \rvert Double Vertical Bars
|/ \lVert \rVert Double Vertical Bars (Variant)

Calculus Symbols

In LaTeX, calculus symbols are used to represent mathematical expressions and operations related to calculus. These symbols plays crucial roles in expressing integrations, limits, differentiation, infinity and other mathematical concepts.

Symbol LaTeX Command Description
\int Integral
\iint Double Integral
\iiint Triple Integral
\oint Contour Integral
\oiint Surface Integral
\oiiint Volume Integral
\nabla Nabla (Gradient Operator)
\partial Partial Derivative
\infty Infinity
lim \lim Limit
d \mathrm{d} Infinitesimal Differential
Δx \Delta x Change in x
Δy \Delta y Change in y
δx \delta x Infinitesimal Change in x
δy \delta y Infinitesimal Change in y
Σ \Sigma Summation
Π \Pi Product

Delimiter Symbols

In LaTeX, delimiter symbols are used to enclose and group parts of mathematical exxpressions and provide clarity to the notation.

Symbol LaTeX Command Description
( ) \left( \right) Parentheses
[ ] \left[ \right] Square Brackets
{ } \left{ \right} Curly Braces
| | \lvert \rvert Double Vertical Bars
|/ \lVert \rVert Double Vertical Bars (Variant)
⟨ ⟩ \langle \rangle Angle Brackets
⌊ ⌋ \lfloor \rfloor Floor Brackets
⌈ ⌉ \lceil \rceil Ceiling Brackets
/ / Slash (Solidus)
\ \backslash Backslash
| \vert Vertical Bar
| \Vert Double Vertical Bar (Variant)
\uparrow \uparrow Up Arrow
\downarrow \downarrow Down Arrow
\updownarrow \updownarrow Up-Down Arrow
\Uparrow \Uparrow Double Up Arrow
\Downarrow \Downarrow Double Down Arrow
\Updownarrow \Updownarrow Double Up-Down Arrow
\ulcorner \ulcorner Upper Left Corner
\urcorner \urcorner Upper Right Corner
\llcorner \llcorner Lower Left Corner
\lrcorner \lrcorner Lower Right Corner

Geometry Symbols

In LaTeX, geometry symbols are used to represent various geometry concepts such as shapes,measurements.

Symbol LaTeX Command Term
\overline{\rm AB} Line Segment
\overrightarrow{\rm AB} Ray (Half-line)
\angle Angle
\measuredangle Measured Angle
\triangle Triangle
\square Square
\cong Congruent (Same Shape and Size)
\ncong Not Congruent
\sim Similar (Same Shape)
\nsim Not Similar
| Is Parallel with
\nparallel Is Not Parallel with
\perp Is Perpendicular to
\not\perp Is Not Perpendicular to
\cap Intersection
\cup Union
\subset Subset
⊂⊄ \subsetneq Proper Subset
\supset Superset
⊃⊄ \supsetneq Proper Superset
\emptyset Empty Set
° \degree Degree Symbol

Greek Symbols

In LaTeX, greek symbols are used to represent the letter of Greek alphabet.These symbols are used in mathematical notation, scientific equations, and various technical fields.

Lowercase Uppercase LaTeX Command Description
α Α \alpha Alpha
β Β \beta Beta
γ Γ \gamma Gamma
δ Δ \delta Delta
ε Ε \epsilon Epsilon
ζ Ζ \zeta Zeta
η Η \eta Eta
θ Θ \theta Theta
ι Ι \iota Iota
κ Κ \kappa Kappa
λ Λ \lambda Lambda
μ Μ \mu Mu
ν Ν \nu Nu
ξ Ξ \xi Xi
ο Ο \omicron Omicron
π Π \pi Pi
ρ Ρ \rho Rho
σ Σ \sigma Sigma
τ Τ \tau Tau
υ Υ \upsilon Upsilon
φ Φ \phi Phi
χ Χ \chi Chi
ψ Ψ \psi Psi
ω Ω \omega Omega

Logic Symbols

In LaTeX, logic symbols are used to represent the various logical operations and mathematical concepts. These symbols plays a very important role in expressing the logical statements, relationships.

Symbol LaTeX Command Description
\exists there exists at least one
∃! \exists! there exists one and only one
\nexists there is no
\forall for all
¬ \neg not (logical not)
\lor or (logical or)
\land and (logical and)
\Longrightarrow or \implies implies
\Rightarrow (preferred for right implication)
\Longleftarrow is implied by (only if)
\Leftarrow (preferred for left implication)
\iff is equivalent to (if and only if, iff)
\Leftrightarrow (preferred for equivalence)

Negated Binary Symbols

In LaTeX, the negated binary relations symbols are used to express the negation or negated version of common binary operations.

Symbol LaTeX Command Description
\ncong Not congruent to
\napprox Not approximately equal to
\nasymp Not asymptotically equal to
\nsim Not similar to
\nequiv Not equivalent to
\nlessgtr Not less/greater than
\ngtrless Not greater/less than
\ngeqslant Not greater than or equal to
\nleqslant Not less than or equal to
\nprec Not precedes
\nsucc Not succeeds
\nsubset Not a subset of
\nsupset Not a superset of
\nsubseteq Not a subset of or equal to
\nsupseteq Not a superset of or equal to
\nvdash Does not imply
\nvDash Not models
\nVdash Not forces
\nVDash Not triple bar
\ntriangleleft Does not contain as left member
\ntriangleright Does not contain as right member
\nprec Not precedes
\nsucc Not succeeds
\npreceq Not precedes or equals
\nsucceq Not succeeds or equals
\nsubseteq Not subset or equal
\nsupseteq Not superset or equal
\nsubseteq Not subset or equal
\nsupseteq Not superset or equal

Other Symbols

In LaTex, it offers variety of other symbols to represent various mathematical, logical and typographic elements in LaTeX documents.

Symbol LaTeX Command Description
\aleph Aleph
\beth Beth
\daleth Daleth
\gimel Gimel
\complement Complement
\ell Script Small L
ð \eth Eth
\hbar Planck Constant (h-bar)
\hslash Planck Constant (h-bar)
\mho Conductance
\partial Partial Derivative
\wp Weierstrass P
\circledS Circled S
\Bbbk Blackboard Bold k
\Finv Inverted F
\Game Game
\Im Imaginary Part
\Re Real Part
\infty Infinity
\forall For All
k \Bbbk Blackboard Bold k
\wp Weierstrass P
\nabla Nabla
\exists Exists
F \bigstar Big Star
\angle Angle
\partial Partial Derivative
@ \nexists Negated Exists
 \diagdown Diagonal Down
] \measuredangle Measured Angle
ð \eth Eth
\emptyset Empty Set
 \diagup Diagonal Up
^ \sphericalangle Spherical Angle
\clubsuit Club Suit
\varnothing Empty Set
\Diamond Diamond
{ \complement Complement
\diamondsuit Diamond Suit
ı \imath Math Italic i
` \Finv Inverted F
O \triangledown Triangle Down
\heartsuit Heart Suit
\jmath Math Script j
a \Game Game
4 \triangle Triangle
\spadesuit Spade Suit
` \ell Script Small L
~ \hbar Planck Constant (h-bar)
M \vartriangle Upright Triangle
· \cdots Centered Ellipsis
RRRR \iiiint Quadruple Integral
} \hslash Planck Constant (h-bar)
 \blacklozenge Black Lozenge
. Ellipsis
\vdots \vdots Vertical Dots
RRR \iiint Triple Integral
\lozenge Lozenge
 \blacksquare Black Square
. Ellipsis
\ldots \ldots Lowercase Dots
RR \iint Double Integral
f \mho Conductance
N \blacktriangle Black Triangle
. Ellipsis
\ddots \ddots Diagonal Dots
] \sharp Sharp
\prime Prime
H \blacktrinagledown Black Triangle Down
= \Im Imaginary Part
[ \flat Flat
\ \square Square
\ \natural Natural
\surd Square Root
s \circledS Circled S
< \leq Less than or equal to

Relation Symbols

In LaTeX, relation symbols are used to express the various relationship between mathematical expressions, elements, and sets.

Symbol LaTeX Command Description
< \textless less than
> \textgreater greater than
= = equal to
\nless not less than
\ngtr not greater than
\neq or \ne not equal to
\leq or \leqslant less than or equal to
\geq or \geqslant greater than or equal to
\nleq or \nleqslant neither less than nor equal to
\ngeq or \ngeqslant neither greater than nor equal to
\ll much less than
\gg much greater than
\lll very much less than
\ggg very much greater than
\parallel parallel to
\nparallel not parallel to
\doteq approaches the limit
\equiv equivalent to
\approx approximately equal to
\cong congruent to or approximately equal to
\simeq asymptotically equal to
\sim similar to
\subset subset of
\supset superset of
\not\subset not a subset of
\not\supset not a superset of
\subseteq subset of or equal to
\supseteq superset of or equal to
\nsubseteq neither a subset of nor equal to
\nsupseteq neither a superset of nor equal to
\sqsubset square image of
\sqsupset square original of
\sqsubseteq square image of or equal to
\sqsupseteq square original of or equal to
\prec precedes
\succ succeeds
\nprec not precede
\nsucc not succeed
\preceq precedes or equal to
\succeq succeeds or equal to
\npreceq not precede or equal
\nsucceq not succeed or equal
\propto proportional to
\asymp equivalent to
\bowtie bowtie
\in element of
\ni contains as member
\notin not an element of

Set Symbols

Set symbols in LaTeX are used to represent various operations and concepts related to sets in mathematics.

Symbol LaTeX Command Term
\varnothing or \emptyset Empty Set
\subseteq Subset
\subset Proper Subset
\supseteq Superset
\supset Proper Superset
\cup Union
\cap Intersection
\in Set Membership
\notin Not a Member
\subseteq Subset of or Equal To
\supseteq Superset of or Equal To
\cup Set Union
\cap Set Intersection
\ \setminus or \backslash Set Difference
\complement Set Complement
\in Set Membership
\notin Not a Member
\cap Set Intersection
\cup Set Union
\subset Subset of
\subsetneq Proper Subset of
\supset Superset of
\supsetneq Proper Superset of
\in Set Membership
\notin Not a Member
\ni Element of
\notni Not an Element of
\cup Set Union
\cap Set Intersection
\ \setminus or \backslash Set Difference
\subseteq Subset or Equal To
\supseteq Superset or Equal To
\cup Set Union
\cap Set Intersection
\subset Subset of
\subsetneq Proper Subset of
\supset Superset of
\supsetneq Proper Superset of
\in Set Membership
\notin Not a Member
\ni Element of
\notni Not an Element of
\cup Set Union
\cap Set Intersection
\ \setminus or \backslash Set Difference
\complement Set Complement
\in Set Membership
\notin Not a Member
\ni Element of
\notni Not an Element of

Special Symbols

In LaTeX, special symbols represents the currency symbols, musical notation, and other miscellaneous characters.

Symbol LaTeX Command Description
° \degree Degree Symbol
\degreeCelsius Degree Celsius Symbol
\degreeFahrenheit Degree Fahrenheit Symbol
\euro Euro Symbol
£ \pound Pound Sterling Symbol
© \copyright Copyright Symbol
® \textregistered Registered Trademark Symbol
\texttrademark Trademark Symbol
\dagger Dagger Symbol
\ddagger Double Dagger Symbol
♂ ♀ \male \female Male and Female Symbols
\checkmark Checkmark Symbol
\cross Cross Symbol

Trigonometric Symbols

In LaTeX, trigonometric symbols are used to represent various trigonometric functions and angles.

Symbol LaTeX Command Description
π \pi Pi
θ \theta Theta
ϕ \phi Phi
ψ \psi Psi
Ω \Omega Omega
sin \sin Sine
cos \cos Cosine
tan \tan Tangent
cot \cot Cotangent
sec \sec Secant
csc \csc Cosecant
arcsin \arcsin Arcsine
arccos \arccos Arccosine
arctan \arctan Arctangent
arccot \arccot Arccotangent
arcsec \arcsec Arcsecant
arccsc \arccsc Arccosecant
sinh \sinh Hyperbolic Sine
arsinh \operatorname{arsinh} Inverse Hyperbolic Sine
csch \operatorname{csch} Hyperbolic Cosecant
arcsch \operatorname{arcsch} Inverse Hyperbolic Cosecant
cosh \cosh Hyperbolic Cosine
arcosh \operatorname{arcosh} Inverse Hyperbolic Cosine
sech \operatorname{sech} Hyperbolic Secant
arsech \operatorname{arsech} Inverse Hyperbolic Secant
tanh \tanh Hyperbolic Tangent
artanh \operatorname{artanh} Inverse Hyperbolic Tangent
coth \coth Hyperbolic Cotangent
arcoth \operatorname{arcoth} Inverse Hyperbolic Cotangent